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In the realm of dietary supplements, one intriguing compound has been making waves for its potential health benefits. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, commonly known as TUDCA, has garnered attention for its versatility, offering a range of advantages from liver support to neuroprotection.

Continue reading as we take you through crucial information about this unique, effective compound.

What Is TUDCA?

Bile acids are natural substances that help break down fats in the digestive system. One such bile acid is tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), which is formed by combining taurine, a small molecule with many important biological functions, and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a bile acid used to treat liver disorders. (1)

Our cells have a special compartment called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that's like a protein factory. When too much stress is put on this protein-making machinery, it can lead to problems called ER stress. This stress can be linked to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and cancer. (1)

Like a skilled chef carefully folds dough to make a perfect pie crust, "chemical chaperones" help proteins fold into their correct shapes inside cells.


TUDCA is one such helpful chaperone, and studies have shown that it effectively reduces ER stress by promoting proper protein folding. This ability extends TUDCA's potential benefits beyond liver health to various conditions associated with ER stress. (1)

Moreover, studies show that TUDCA provides cell protection by reducing ER stress and stopping a process called apoptosis, which is a programmed cell suicide. (1) Turning on pathways that help cells survive appears to be one fundamental way TUDCA blocks cell death.

The Benefits Of TUDCA

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has gained much attention for its potential health benefits. Its unique mechanism makes it a promising supplement for various aspects of well-being. Let's explore these different benefits to help you understand the true potential of this compound.

1. Liver Health

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes bile to accumulate in the liver. The standard treatment for PBC is UDCA, which replaces sticky bile acids to reduce bile buildup and liver damage. A research study showed that TUDCA is as safe and effective as UDCA for treating PBC. (2) Additionally, TUDCA may be more effective in relieving PBC symptoms.

In addition to treating certain liver diseases caused by bile buildup, TUDCA may also safeguard the liver from damage caused by long-term alcohol consumption, as suggested by a rat study. (1)

TUDCA can effectively prevent the production of harmful substances and the destruction of liver cells triggered by TNF alpha, a protein that contributes to inflammation.

TUDCA for liver health

TUDCA may help safeguard the liver from alcohol-induced damage by maintaining the flexibility of the outer membranes of mitochondria, the cell's energy powerhouses. (1) This flexibility is crucial for optimal mitochondrial function and ensures adequate levels of glutathione, a potent antioxidant that protects cells from harm.

Another study explored TUDCA's impact on cirrhosis, a severe liver disease causing scarring. Participants taking TUDCA showed better liver function with improved liver function levels. (3)

Although blood markers for liver scarring hinted at improvement, the change wasn't statistically significant, emphasizing the need for more research to confirm TUDCA's potential benefits in treating cirrhosis.

2. Brain Health

Neurodegenerative disorders are diseases that cause the gradual loss of brain functions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Multiple studies have demonstrated TUDCA's protective effects on nerve cells in models of neurodegenerative diseases. (1),(4),(5)

ALS is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for muscle movement. Patients with ALS typically survive 2 to 4 years after the onset of symptoms. (6) The disease causes muscle weakness that worsens over time, eventually leading to paralysis. ALS is a fatal disease, and there is currently no cure.

Not only has TUDCA proven to be safe, but phase 2 clinical trials have also shown encouraging results, hinting at its ability to slow down the progression of ALS. (6) This is a big deal because phase 2 trials play a vital role in assessing how well experimental drugs work and whether they're safe, guiding decisions on whether to proceed with development and potential drug approval for market use.

A recent study investigated whether TUDCA could extend the survival of ALS patients. The study compared 86 ALS patients treated with TUDCA to 172 ALS patients not given TUDCA. (7) The results showed that patients taking TUDCA lived longer than those who did not.

The benefit of TUDCA was more significant for those taking higher doses (at least 1000 milligrams per day). This study suggests that TUDCA may be a promising treatment option for ALS.

Researchers investigated whether TUDCA could protect the brain and improve function after a bleeding (hemorrhagic) stroke in rats. (8) Injecting TUDCA before or up to 6 hours after inducing a stroke significantly reduced brain damage by up to 50% within two days. These improvements were associated with better movement, coordination, limb placement, and stepping ability.

TUDCA's ability to protect nerve cells stems from its strong capacity to halt programmed cell death, lessen oxidative stress (buildup of harmful molecules that damage cells), and decrease endoplasmic reticulum stress. (1),(4),(5) Two other ways TUDCA safeguards the nervous system is by protecting mitochondria and reducing inflammation. (6)

3. Metabolic Health

Research on a model of Alzheimer's disease in mice showed that TUDCA can help the brain use energy and sugar better. (9) These are two essential functions that often go wrong in Alzheimer's disease. Affected mice lost weight and fat and had less damage and inflammation in the hypothalamus, a brain region that controls weight.

When obesity (a condition where a person has excess body fat) and poor nutrition coincide, the body struggles to manage blood sugar and fat levels. (10) In mice with obesity and inadequate protein intake, TUDCA helped the body respond to insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar) more effectively, reducing insulin secretion.

TUDCA also restored the body's ability to switch between using carbohydrates and fats for energy, known as metabolic flexibility, and lowered fat levels in these mice. Overall, TUDCA shows promise in reversing metabolic disorders caused by having both excessive body fat and malnutrition.10

As we age, our bodies become less efficient at processing sugar, leading to insulin resistance and high insulin levels (hyperinsulinemia). These changes increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and its complications, particularly in older adults. (11)

In a study with aged mice, TUDCA lowered hyperinsulinemia and improved glucose regulation by enhancing the liver's ability to break down insulin. (11) Additionally, TUDCA-treated mice showed reduced fat levels, smaller fat cells, and less fat buildup in the liver. These improvements in glucose-insulin balance were associated with increased energy expenditure, improved metabolic flexibility, and better cognitive function.

In a human study of obese adults, researchers examined how TUDCA, a potential treatment for insulin resistance (a precursor to type 2 diabetes), affects the body's response to insulin. (12) Twenty obese participants were randomly assigned to receive either TUDCA or a placebo for four weeks.

TUDCA was found to improve insulin sensitivity significantly (how effectively the body responds to insulin) in the liver and muscles by about 30%. (12) It also enhanced insulin signaling (the communication process where insulin instructs cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream) in the muscles.

These findings suggest that TUDCA has the potential to treat insulin resistance effectively, but further research is needed to understand its mechanisms of action fully.

4. Kidney Health

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious condition that affects many people. It causes the kidneys to work less well, leading to poor health and a reduced quality of life. Kidney scarring (called renal fibrosis) builds up in the kidneys in CKD. (13)

A protein called TGF-beta1 contributes to renal fibrosis by triggering stress on the cell's protein-making factory, called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as described earlier. Since TUDCA can block ER stress, it may help prevent renal fibrosis. A study showed that TUDCA reduced the levels of blood markers related to ER stress and fibrosis (scarring) in kidney cells. (13)

The endothelin B (ETB) receptor is vital for keeping the kidneys healthy, especially when it comes to removing excess salt. It assists in getting rid of extra fluid and lessening the impact of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a substance that narrows blood vessels in the kidneys. (14)

TUDCA For kidney health

When the endothelin system is overly active, it's associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, and inflammation.

A study in rats suggests that TUDCA may help protect the kidneys from damage caused by a high-salt diet. (14) Rats without ETB receptors, which typically help protect the kidneys, experienced severe kidney damage when fed a high-salt diet. However, when these rats were given TUDCA, the kidney damage was completely prevented.

Even without protecting ETB receptors and on a high-salt diet, TUDCA successfully lowered blood markers of kidney injury, immune cell overactivity, and cell death. (14) These findings suggest that TUDCA, by reducing cellular stress, may be a promising treatment for preventing kidney damage caused by a high-salt diet.

5. Gut Health

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to chronic inflammatory conditions of the digestive tract, leading to symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fatigue. Emerging research suggests that ER stress may contribute to IBD. (15) Patients with IBD show signs of ER stress in their intestinal lining cells. Genetics also link some IBD genes to ER stress-related proteins.

In recent research, TUDCA significantly reduced inflammation in four IBD mouse models by alleviating ER stress in intestinal cells when taken orally. (15) This led to a preliminary clinical trial for ulcerative colitis, a type of IBD affecting the colon, where patients were given 2000 milligrams of TUDCA three times a day for six weeks.

The study included imaging and tissue samples at the start and end, assessing safety, tolerance, disease severity, and ER stress blood marker changes. Early findings indicate that the TUDCA supplement was safe and well-tolerated, and it improved most patients' moderate to severe ulcerative colitis, with some showing healing in the intestinal lining and reduced ER stress markers. (15)

Ongoing analysis will explore changes to genes and the gut microbiome, the diverse community of trillions of microorganisms living in the digestive tract, playing a crucial role in digestion, immunity, and overall health. (15)

In a recent study, scientists looked into how TUDCA influences the connection between the gut and liver, a key player in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). (16) NAFLD occurs when there's too much fat in the liver, often due to an unhealthy diet and lifestyle.

Mice with NAFLD were fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks, and for the last 4 weeks, they received TUDCA orally. The study investigated changes in intestinal gene expression, tissue inflammation, the composition of the gut microbiome, and overall metabolism (the breaking down of food into energy). (16)

TUDCA not only reduced liver fat, inflammation, body fat, and insulin resistance (a precursor to type 2 diabetes) but also improved gut health by decreasing inflammation, enhancing intestinal barriers, and positively altering the gut microbiome. (16)

These results indicate that TUDCA could potentially block NAFLD progression by addressing different aspects of the gut-liver connection.

6. Gallbladder Health

In a study with mice, it was found that TUDCA could potentially prevent gallstones by reducing the absorption of fat in the intestines. (17) TUDCA achieves this by altering the collection of bacteria in the intestines (the gut microbiome).

This shift in gut bacteria results in less fat available for the formation of gallstones. While these findings suggest TUDCA might be a promising treatment for gallstones, further research is required to confirm these results in humans. (17)

7. Eye Health

TUDCA might protect the cells in the retina, the part of the eye that senses light, from damage. Some people have retinitis pigmentosa disorder, which causes blindness and makes the retina cells die.

It also destroys the connections between cells that sense light and surrounding nerve cells that send signals to the brain. TUDCA prevented this from happening in experimental rats. (1),(4)

TUDCA's therapeutic potential extends beyond retinitis pigmentosa to other medical conditions that impair vision, such as retinal detachment, when the retina separates from its normal position. (1)

8. Joint Health

Osteoarthritis (OA), a common joint disease causing pain and stiffness, results from cartilage breakdown. High cholesterol in OA cartilage cells stiffens cell membranes and hinders signals for cartilage gene expression. A study explored if TUDCA could restore OA cartilage by reducing cholesterol and promoting cartilage cell signaling. (18)

When tested on human OA cartilage cells, TUDCA significantly boosted cell growth, cartilage-related gene expression, and important cartilage components. (18) It also improved the ability of cartilage cells to stick together, which is crucial for joint function.

While the study was conducted on isolated cells, suggesting TUDCA could be a potential OA treatment, further research is needed to confirm its effectiveness in people.

9. Heart Health

High blood pressure can cause the heart to grow larger and weaker. This can be triggered by stress inside the heart's cells, leading to cell death and scarring. A recent study looked at whether TUDCA could reduce this damage by lowering ER stress levels in the heart's cells. (19)

Mice were given either TUDCA or a placebo, and then their hearts were put under pressure. The researchers found that TUDCA significantly reduced the damage to the heart, including lowering the amount of scar tissue, cell death, and changes in genes. (19)

These findings suggest that TUDCA may be a promising treatment for heart conditions that involve too much strain on the heart.

TUDCA Dosage & How To Use

There is no standardized dosage for using TUDCA. Trials in humans investigating TUDCA's ability to treat different medical conditions have varied greatly.

For example, the dose used for treating biliary cirrhosis was between 500mg and 1500mg daily, while the dose for treating ulcerative colitis was much higher (2 grams three times per day). (15),(23)

TUDCA dosage

Most supplement companies recommend taking no more than 1500 milligrams of TUDCA daily (either as a single or divided dose) to avoid side effects.

Remember that although the Food and Drug Administration recently approved a combination drug containing TUDCA for the treatment of ALS, TUDCA as a supplement by itself has not been proven to treat any medical condition in humans.

TUDCA Side Effects

A small number of people who took TUDCA reported side effects such as diarrhea, stomach pain, or skin rashes. (7) Diarrhea was the most common side effect.

About 4 out of 10 of the people who experienced side effects stopped taking TUDCA because of them. A few of these people required hospitalization, but all side effects resolved after stopping TUDCA.

These rare side effects occurred at high doses used to test how safe and effective TUDCA was at treating human diseases.(7),(15) At smaller dosages, the risk of having side effects is less.

Where To Buy TUDCA

If you're searching for a reliable source to buy TUDCA, choosing a product that guarantees purity and quality is essential. We offer an excellent TUDCA supplement that meets these criteria.

TUDCA Supplement

Our TUDCA supplement is pure, contains no additives, ensuring you get the most effective form of this beneficial compound. One of the standout features of our TUDCA is that it is third-party tested.

This rigorous testing process ensures the highest quality and transparency, giving you confidence in the product's safety and efficacy. Third-party testing verifies that the supplement contains exactly what it promises, free from harmful contaminants and impurities.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is TUDCA safe?

Studies involving humans have consistently shown that TUDCA is safe and well-tolerated by most people.

How much TUDCA should I take per day?

To reduce the likelihood of side effects, the recommended daily dose is no more than 1500 milligrams. This can be taken in a single dose or, more commonly, divided into two or three doses throughout the day.

Do I take TUDCA with or without food?

You can take TUDCA either with or without food. While research on TUDCA’s chemical relative, UDCA, suggests that taking it with a high-fat meal might slow down absorption, it could potentially facilitate absorption slightly. (20) Since TUDCA is a natural bile acid that aids in fat absorption and digestion, it's generally recommended to take it with food.

Can TUDCA cause liver damage?

There is no evidence that TUDCA causes liver damage. In fact, TUDCA is being evaluated to treat multiple conditions that damage the liver, including liver cirrhosis, which is end-stage liver disease with severe scarring. (1),(2),(3)

TUDCA has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated for up to one year in patients with liver transplants, liver cirrhosis, and other conditions. (21) However, there is no clinical data available on TUDCA treatments lasting longer than one year.

Why is TUDCA so expensive?

The price of TUDCA is influenced by various factors, such as the expenses associated with obtaining raw materials, top-notch manufacturing, and third-party purity verification.

In a market-driven economy, pricing is significantly shaped by supply and demand. Given the numerous potential health benefits of TUDCA, there's a high demand for it, and its availability is limited, contributing to its overall cost.

How long does TUDCA stay in your system?

Studies on TUDCA's chemical relative, UDCA, indicate that, on average, it takes about 2 hours for levels of TUDCA and similar bile acids in the body to decrease by half after consumption. (22) This quick breakdown underscores the benefit of dividing the daily dose of TUDCA and taking it multiple times throughout the day.


TUDCA holds immense promise for improving the health of numerous organs throughout the body by promoting proper protein folding, preventing cell death, and through other mechanisms.

Overall, it appears to be safe and well-tolerated. While further research is needed to fully understand its long-term effects and ability to treat specific medical conditions, TUDCA's potential benefits are certainly encouraging.


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1 comment

  • Brenda Siron

    Can people who have had their gallbladder removed take Tudca?

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